A: Both are well trained in musculoskeletal medicine. Sports Medicine Specialists specialize in the non-operative treatment of musculoskeletal conditions. Orthopedic surgeons are also trained in the operative treatment of these conditions. However, approximately 90% of all sports injuries are non-surgical. The Sports Medicine Specialist can maximize non-operative treatment, guide appropriate referrals to physical and occupational therapies, and if necessary expedite a surgical referral.